Contributors

Lucian C. Arulpragasam was born in (then) Ceylon. He graduated from the University of Ceylon in 1948 in Economics and Political Science and was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Political Science at the same University. He joined the Ceylon Civil Service in 1951, where he worked for ten years in the fields of agrarian reform and agricultural policy/planning for the agriculture sector. In 1962, he joined the FAO where, as Regional Officer for Asia/Far East resident in the region, and later as Chief Economist for Asia/Far East at FAO Headquarters (Rome), he was able to visit and work in every country in Asia for a period of over 20 years, observing also their political developments. Later, as Chief of the Agrarian Reform Service he also covered other countries in Africa, Latin America and the Middle East. After his retirement from FAO, he worked as a consultant for many UN agencies and authored many of their publications. Although living abroad, he has visited Sri Lanka at least once or twice each year over the past 50 years, which has enabled him to keep in touch with the economic and political developments in his own country.  Mr Arulpragasam now lives in retirement in the Philippines.

Radhika Coomaraswamy was Under Secretary General of the United Nations and Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict 2006-2012. Before that she was the Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Human Rights Commission on Violence Against Women 1994-2003. In Sri Lanka she was a Director of the International Center for Ethnic Studies 1982-2006 and Chairperson of the Sri Lankan Human Rights Commission 2003-2006. She has written two books on constitutional law, and many articles in the area of women’s rights and ethnic studies. She is also a member of the Global Faculty of the New York University School of Law.

Kumar David. The intertwining of two traditions describes Kumar David. He has been a Marxist for sixty years and an academic researching and teaching electrical power systems for forty. Kumar entered the left movement with the 1953 Hartal and remained part of the Samasamaja tradition since. He was secretary of the University Local, one of the youngest party members at the fateful 1964 LSSP Conference, a leading member of the Vamasamasamaja left tendency within the LSSP in the 1970s and 80s, and still active in initiatives such as the Marx School. Kumar writes about 10 columns a month to The Colombo Telegraph, The Sunday Island, LakbimaNews and the South Asia Analysis Group. Currently he is interested in the New Depression and the national question. His positions flow consistently from Marxist fundamentals. Kumar has been an active researcher in four continents. His longest stints were at the University of Peradeniya and Hong Kong Polytechnic University where he was Professor and Dean. He was a Fellow of the IEEE and of the IEE, has graduated 25 PhD and MPhil candidates and published 150 technical papers. He is now retired from academia. His other interests are good wine, literature especially Shakespeare, and a little familiarity with classical music.

Roshan de Silva Wijeyeratne was born in Colombo. He studied law at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. He undertook his Masters in Law in the University of London, and then proceeded to his doctorate at the University of Kent. He currently teaches at the Griffith Law School in Griffith University, Queensland. He teaches courses in Law and Religion, Law and Culture, Native Title and Energy and Resources Law. He has recently completed a book for Routledge (forthcoming 2013) on the relation between Buddhism and constitutionalism in Sri Lanka. He is currently undertaking research on the legal regulation of indentured labour in Queensland in the late nineteenth century.

Anna Dziedzic is a researcher in comparative constitutional law at the University of Melbourne Law School, Australia. She has completed a Master of Arts in Human Rights at University College London and holds Bachelor degrees in Arts and Law from the Australian National University. She has published work in the areas of Australian constitutional and discrimination law.

Luwie Niranjan Ganeshathasan holds an LL.B degree from the Faculty of Law, University of Colombo, and is an Attorney-at-Law of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka. He works as a Researcher at the Legal & Constitutional Unit of the Centre for Policy Alternatives (CPA). Since January 2012, he has been involved in supporting public interest litigation cases filed and handled by CPA, and in co-authoring several policy briefs and advocacy documents on issues related to human rights and reconciliation in postwar Sri Lanka.

Yash Ghai studied law at Oxford and Harvard and was called to the English Bar by the Middle Temple. He has taught at the University of East Africa, Uppsala University, the University of Warwick and the University of Hong Kong (where he was the first Sir Y.K. Pao Professor of Public Law until the end of 2006). He has been a visiting professor at Yale Law School, Toronto University, Melbourne University, London University, the National University of Singapore, University of Wisconsin and Harvard Law School. His research interests include constitutionalism and human rights, ethnic conflicts, sociology of law, and federalism and autonomy. He has published extensively and his books include: Public Law and Political Change in Kenya (1970, with Patrick McAuslan), Law in the Political Economy of Public Enterprise (1977), The Political Economy of Law: Third World Perspectives (1987, edited jointly with Robin Luckham and Francis Snyder), Law, Politics and Government in Pacific Island States (1988), Heads of States in the Pacific: A Legal and Constitutional Analysis (1990, with Jill Cottrell), Hong Kong’s New Constitutional Order: The Resumption of Chinese Sovereignty and the Basic Law (1997, 1999, 2nd Ed.), and The Millennium Declaration, Rights and Constitutions (2011, with Jill Cottrell). Beyond the academy, Yash Ghai is one of the world’s leading experts in comparative constitution-making and has worked on the constitutions of Kenya, Fiji, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, in addition to advising on constitutional reform issues in numerous other countries, including Sri Lanka, with which Ghai has a long association. This experience is reflected in particular in the influential new handbook for constitution-makers Constitution-making and Reform: Options for Process (2011, with Michele Brandt, Jill Cottrell, and Anthony Regan).

Farzana Haniffa obtained her PhD in Anthropology from Columbia University in 2007 and has since then been a Senior Lecturer in the Sociology Department of the University of Colombo. Her research and activist interests for the past twelve years have concentrated on the politics of Muslim communities in Sri Lanka. She has published on the Islamic reform movements in Sri Lanka, the history of Muslims’ involvement in electoral politics and the Muslim community’s exclusion from the peace processes in Sri Lanka. Her most recent project involved an investigation into the expulsion of Muslims from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In 2009, she initiated a Citizens’ Commission to inquire into and report on the expulsion of northern Muslims, its consequences, and their expectation of return. The final report entitled A Quest for Redemption: the Story of the Northern Muslims was launched in November 2011. Haniffa has also written on issues of women and conflict, transitional justice, militarisation, and child rights in Sri Lanka. She is a council member of the Social Scientists’ Association and Chair of the Board of Directors of the Secretariat for Muslims.

Nicholas ‘Fink’ Haysom was appointed Deputy Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for Afghanistan (Political Affairs) in March 2012. At the time of his appointment, Haysom was serving as Director for Political, Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Affairs in the Executive Office of the Secretary-General since 2007. From April 2005 to mid-2007 he was the head of the Office of Constitutional Support in the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI). 
Prior to his UN appointment in Baghdad, he worked on constitutional reform, electoral reform, conflict resolution, good governance, and democracy strengthening in several countries in Africa and Asia. Most notably, Haysom was involved in the Burundi Peace Talks as the chairman of the committee negotiating constitutional issues (1999-2002) and served as the principal adviser to the Mediator in the Sudanese Peace Process (2002-2005). Haysom was closely involved in the constitutional negotiations leading up to the interim and final constitutions in South Africa. He served as Chief Legal Adviser throughout Mr Mandela’s presidency until 1999 and continued to work with Mandela on his private peace initiatives up to 2002.
 Haysom was a founding partner of a human rights law firm, and an Associate Professor of Law until he joined Mr Mandela’s office in May 1994. As an attorney of the South African High Court, he litigated human rights cases between 1981 and 1993. He acted as a professional mediator in labour and community conflicts in South Africa between 1985 and 1993. Haysom has served as a trustee of, amongst others, the Forum of Federations and the Nelson Mandela Foundation. He has chaired or served as a member of panels of experts, including the United Nations Panel of Experts on Conflict Resolution. Haysom has written on constitutional, human rights and related matters in various academic publications and is the co-author of Fundamental Rights in the Constitution: Commentary and Cases. His most recent writing has been on peace processes, conflict resolution and constitutional reform. He is regularly invited to address international conferences and workshops on peace negotiations, and comparative constitution-making experiences.
 Haysom is a graduate of the Universities of Natal and of Cape Town, where he was Chairperson of the Student’s Representative Council and President of the National Union of South African Students. During the 1970s and 1980s Haysom was in incommunicado detention on three occasions, and served with a two-year ‘banning’ (house arrest) order. He is a recipient of the South African Playwright of the Year award (1987).

Qadri Ismail teaches postcolonial studies at the University of Minnesota. His publications include Abiding by Sri Lanka (2005).

Nihal Jayawickrama, LLB (Ceylon), PhD (London), was the Permanent Secretary to the Ministry of Justice from 1970-1977, having been admitted to the Bar as an Advocate of the Supreme Court in 1962. Moving into academic life, he was Associate Professor of Law at the University of Hong Kong, where he taught public law, and the Ariel F. Sallows Professor of Human Rights at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. He is the author of The Judicial Application of Human Rights Law: National, Regional and International Jurisprudence (Cambridge University Press, 2002). As Chairman of the Hong Kong Section of the International Commission of Jurists, he was a principal commentator on constitutional issues in that territory in the period between the signing of the Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Transfer of Sovereignty. He was Executive Director of Transparency International in Berlin (1997-2000). More recently, he was the Chair of the Trustees of the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, London. Since 2000, he has been a UN consultant on judicial reform, human rights and anti-corruption strategies, and has worked with governments and judiciaries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern and Central Europe. He is currently the Coordinator of the UN Judicial Integrity Group.

Sunela Jayewardene has been widely recognised as ‘Sri Lanka’s leading environmental architect’ (Time, March 2007; India Today, 2008). Her primary design impulse is a serious concern for the ecology of sites and sustainability of human habitats. In Vil Uyana for Jetwing Hotels, she rejuvenated the site by creating a wetland system with lakes, reed beds and imported indigenous forest (HICAP award for Sustainable Design & Merit Award for Aesthetic Application from Holcim Lanka). She is responsible for Colombo’s first boutique hotel, the 1930s period style, Havelock Bungalow. In Colombo Courtyards, recycled material became a metaphor for the future of urban dwellings; the Rainforest Lodge redefined ‘luxury’ by using decommissioned shipping containers to build chalets (sixth hotel in the world to be awarded LEEDS Platinum status). She is inspired by the culture, traditions and landscapes, and explores the future of Sri Lankan identity, seeking to preserve its culture by reviving its crafts, arts and vernacular design traditions through applications in contemporary buildings. She has designed over 50 private homes and holiday villas both in Sri Lanka and India. Sunela studied architecture at the prestigious Pratt Institute, New York, USA and interned at The Centre for Human Environments, New York, USA.

Chulani Kodikara is currently a Senior Researcher at the International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Colombo. She is the author of Muslim Family Law in Sri Lanka (1999) and Women and Governance in Sri Lanka (2002) co-authored with Kishali Pinto Jayawardena. She has an LL.B from the University of Colombo and a Masters in Governance and Development from the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex.

Hallie Ludsin is Research Director at the South Asia Human Rights Documentation Centre.  She previously worked as a legal consultant with the Women’s Centre for Legal Aid and Counselling in the West Bank, the Centre for Policy Alternatives in Colombo, Sri Lanka, and the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in Johannesburg, South Africa. Hallie also served as a researcher with the Gender Research Project of the Centre for Applied Legal Studies in Johannesburg, South Africa, and practiced as a litigation associate at Jones Day in New York. She has taught law school courses on comparative law, South African customary law, and on the application of international law to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Her article ‘Relational Rights Masquerading as Individual Rights,’ published by the Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy, was named as one of the top ten Global Justice Law Reviews of 2008 by the University of Utah’s Global Justice Think Tank. Hallie earned a B.A. from Johns Hopkins University, a J.D. from Case Western Reserve University, and an LL.M. from the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa.

David Rampton (PhD London, 2010) is a Fellow in Global Politics in the Government and IR Departments of the London School of Economics (LSE). He completed his PhD, which focused on hegemony, identity and Sinhala nationalism, at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS). His current research focuses on the biopolitics of nationalism and the governmental interface between nationalist and international state-building projects. He has recently published articles in Commonwealth and Comparative Politics and in edited volumes. His research interests include nationalism studies, international relations, political theory, political violence, security studies, development and conflict, forced migration, South Asian (and specifically Sri Lankan) society and politics. 

Michael Roberts was trained in history and the social sciences at Peradeniya University in Sri Lanka. This education was in the British empiricist tradition. He was elected Rhodes Scholar for Ceylon in 1962 and matriculated at Merton College for his higher degree. His initial PhD work on agrarian policy took him into intellectual history as well as economic history and political economy. Once he began in the late 1960s to look at the social base of the nationalist movement in British Ceylon, his researches moved him into social history. This involved a study of social mobility and elite formation. This shift was further promoted by his involvement in the interdisciplinary discussions of the Ceylon Studies Seminar at Peradeniya, in which he was key founder. Moreover, his oral history work among administrators and politicians in the late 1960s provided a foundation for his deepening engagement with the phenomenon of nationalism. These researches crystallised in the monumental four-volume Documents of the Ceylon National Congress (1977, Dept. of National Archives) and the edited anthology Collective Identities (Marga, 1979). When he gained an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship to Germany in 1975-76, and then secured a post at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Adelaide, this process of transformation continued. Teaching anthropology meant studying the subject and gaining awareness of ethnographic field study methodology. Though he never pursued extensive field studies, his researches in effect involved the deciphering of the life ways of the middle classes of modern Sri Lanka. His Caste Conflict and Elite Formation The Rise of a Karava Elite in Sri Lanka, 1500-1931 (1982, CUP) is as much a product of Peradeniya as Adelaide, while People Inbetween (Sarvodaya, 1989) is about the middle classes of British Ceylon and the growth of Colombo city to hegemonic status. When the ethnic conflict within Sri Lanka sharpened after 1983, Roberts’ familiarity with nationalist ideology stood him in good stead; while his anthropological awareness of human relations and inter-personal subjectivity also came in handy. Thus, his recent writings in the 1990s and 2000s have concentrated heavily on ethnic politics in Sri Lanka, both in the British period (for e.g. studies of Anagarika Dharmapala’s thinking and the 1915 anti-Muslim pogrom) and in contemporary Lanka (Sinhala nationalist writing and the LTTE’s hero rituals). At the same time he has (a) undertaken an excursion into the pre-British era and analysed the political structure and ideological form of the state of Sinhalē in the period 1590s to 1815 and (b) ventured to analyse the politics of cricket in Sri Lanka as well as abroad (see Essaying Cricket, 2006 Vijitha Yapa). While Roberts can be described as a historical anthropologist, the fact remains that all his work engages the political relations of power and that he straddles the disciplines of politics, sociology, anthropology and history.

Ambika Satkunanathan is an independent researcher. Ambika has a Master of Laws (Human Rights) degree from the University of Nottingham, where she was Chevening Scholar 2001-2, and earned bachelors degrees (LL.B / B.A) at Monash University, Australia. Her recent research has focused on the impact of national security laws on women in the north, re-integration of former combatants, the impact of armed conflict on intra-community relations in the north, and gender and Tamil nationalism. She is currently working as National Legal Consultant in the Office of the UN Resident Coordinator. She is the Chairperson of the Neelan Tiruchelvam Trust, an indigenous philanthropic organisation that supports initiatives that focus on social justice, human rights and peace. Ambika is also a bureau member of South Asians for Human Rights, a regional network of scholars, rights activists, legal practitioners and artists, committed to addressing human rights issues at both national and regional levels. 

Cheryl Saunders is a Laureate Professor of the University of Melbourne, and holds a personal chair in law. She teaches in both the JD and the MLM and is the founding Director of the Centre for Comparative Constitutional Studies of the Melbourne Law School. Cheryl Saunders has specialist interests in constitutional law and comparative public law, including federalism and intergovernmental relations and constitutional design and change, on all of which she has written widely. She has recently published The Australian Constitution: A Contextual Analysis (Hart Publishing, 2011) and is presently working on a monograph on comparative constitutional law. Cheryl Saunders is an editor of the Public Law Review and a member of the editorial boards of a range of Australian and international journals, including Publius, Jus Politicum and the Constitutional Court Review, South Africa. She has held visiting positions at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Paris II, Georgetown, Indiana (Bloomington), Hong Kong, Copenhagen, Fribourg, Cape Town and Auckland. She is President Emeritus of the International Association of Constitutional Law and the International Association of Centers for Federal Studies, and a former President of the Administrative Review Council of Australia. In addition to her research and teaching activities, Cheryl Saunders is active in public debate on constitutional matters in Australia and internationally. From 1991, as deputy chair of the Australian Constitutional Centenary Foundation, she was closely involved in its pioneering work to encourage public understanding of the Constitution. She has had some involvement in aspects of constitutional design in other countries, including Fiji, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Iraq and Nepal. She is a member of the Advisory Board of International IDEA.

Benjamin Schonthal teaches at Victoria University in Wellington and has his PhD in History of Religions from the University of Chicago.

Stephen Tierney is Professor of Constitutional Theory, School of Law, University of Edinburgh, and Director of the Edinburgh Centre for Constitutional Law. He has held visiting professorships in International Law at Seton Hall Law School, New Jersey (2010 and 2011) and in Political Theory at Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona (2010). Professor Tierney was a British Academy/Leverhulme Senior Research Fellow 2008-2009. He teaches and researches at the interfaces between public law, international law and constitutional theory. Current research interests include the legal accommodation of national identity, comparative constitutional law and theory, and the use of referendums in the settlement of constitutional questions. Professor Tierney has published seven books including Constitutional Law and National Pluralism (OUP, 2004) and Constitutional Referendums: The Theory and Practice of Republican Deliberation (OUP, 2012).

Neil Walker holds the Regius Chair of Public Law and the Law of Nature and Nations at the University of Edinburgh. His main area of expertise is constitutional theory. He has published extensively on the constitutional dimension of legal order at sub-state, state, supranational and international levels. He has also published at length on the relationship between security, legal order and political community. He maintains a more general interest in broader questions of legal theory as well as in various substantive dimensions of UK and EU public law. Previously he taught public law at Edinburgh for ten years (1986-96), was Professor of Legal and Constitutional Theory at the University of Aberdeen (1996-2000), and, most recently, was Professor of European Law at the European University Institute in Florence (2000-8), where he was also the first Dean of Studies (2002-5). He has also held various visiting appointments, including Visiting Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Tilburg, Netherlands (2000); Visiting Professor of Law, University of Columbia, NY (2005); Eugene Einaudi Chair of European Studies, University of Cornell (2007); Distinguished Visiting Professor of Law, University of Toronto (2007); and Global Professor of Law, New York University (2011-12).

Asanga Welikala holds LL.B and LL.M (European Public Law) degrees from the School of Law, University of Hull, where he also won the F.W. Taylor Prize for the most outstanding performance by an LL.M student. He is a Senior Researcher in the Legal & Constitutional Unit of the Centre for Policy Alternatives (CPA). Currently on sabbatical leave from CPA, he is completing his PhD at the School of Law, University of Edinburgh. His thesis is provisionally titled, ‘Beyond the Liberal Paradigm: The Constitutional Accommodation of National Pluralism in Sri Lanka.’ He is a member of the Edinburgh Centre for Constitutional Law and a Tutor in Public Law. Asanga Welikala has worked on constitutional and legal reform issues in a number of countries in addition to Sri Lanka, including the Maldives, Nepal, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt and Libya, and in 2004-5 during the Iraqi constitution-making process, was a Legal Officer in the Office of Constitutional Support, United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) in Baghdad. His publications include, as author, (2008) A State of Permanent Crisis: Constitutional Government, Fundamental Rights, and States of Emergency in Sri Lanka, and as co-editor, (2008) Essays on Federalism in Sri Lanka and (2009) Power Sharing in Sri Lanka: Political and Constitutional Documents 1926 – 2008.

Jayampathy Wickramaratne is a senior legal practitioner specialising in constitutional law, human rights litigation, administrative law and criminal law. In 2001, he was appointed President’s Counsel. He holds a Master’s degree in Public Administration and was awarded the PhD degree for his thesis titled ‘Fundamental Rights in Sri Lanka.’ He served as Consultant in the Ministry of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and as Senior Advisor in the Ministry of Constitutional Affairs. Dr Wickramaratne was a member of the team that drafted the Constitution Bill of 2000. He was a member of the panel of experts appointed by the President and a signatory to the ‘majority report’ which proposed a strong power-sharing arrangement as a solution to Sri Lanka’s ethnic crisis. He also chaired a committee that drafted a new constitutional Bill of Rights. Dr Wickramaratne has done several assignments in the legal sector of Laos. He is a Director of the Institute for Constitutional Studies, a non-governmental organisation working on constitutionalism, devolution, power-sharing and human rights in Sri Lanka. Dr Wickramaratne has written extensively on issues relating to power-sharing, human rights and other constitutional issues and presented numerous papers at international and local events. He is the author of Fundamental Rights in Sri Lanka, now in its second edition.

Maithree Wickramasinghe,PhD, is Professor and Head of the Department of English, and the founding Director of the Centre for Gender Studies at the University of Kelaniya. Her publications include Feminist Research MethodologyMaking Meanings of Meaning Making (2010), Beyond Glass Ceilings and Brick Walls – Gender at the Workplace (2006), co-authored with Wijaya Jayatilake, Gender Dimensions in Disaster Management (2003/2005) co-authored with Madhavi Malalgoda Ariyabandhu (translated into Urdu, Hindi, Tamil and Sinhala). She is also the author of From Theory to Action – Women, Gender and Development (2000). She graduated from King’s College (London) with an English Honours. She has a Masters in Women’s Studies from the University of Colombo and a doctorate for her work on feminist research methodology from the Institute of Education (London).

David C. Williams is John S. Hastings Professor of Law, and the Executive Director of the Center for Constitutional Democracy of the Maurer School of Law, Indiana University, Bloomington. He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University, where he served on the Board of Editors for the Harvard Law Review. He is a popular lecturer on Native American people and on the Second Amendment. Winner of the Wallace Teaching Award and the Leonard D. Fromm Public Interest Faculty Award, Williams teaches constitutional law and Native American law. Williams has taught at the University of Paris and lectured around the world. He was a member of the faculty of law at the University of Cambridge and a fellow at that university’s Wolfson College. He was also a fellow at the European University Institute in Fiesole. A noted constitutional law scholar, Williams has written widely on constitutional design, Native American law, the constitutional treatment of difference, and the relationship between constitutionalism and political violence. He is the author of The Mythic Meanings of the Second Amendment: Taming Political Violence in a Constitutional Republic (Yale University Press, 2003). He is also co-editor and primary author of Designing Federalism in Burma (UNLD Press 2005), which is widely read in the Burma democracy movement. As Executive Director of the Center for Constitutional Democracy, Williams consults with a number of reform movements abroad. He advises many elements of the Burma democracy movement on the constitutional future of that country. He is a consultant to the government of Liberia on its constitutional revision process and has helped to write Liberia’s law reform and anti-corruption statutes. He is also the primary author of the first treatise on the meaning of the Liberian constitution (forthcoming). More recently, he has become a constitutional advisor to the Democratic Party of Vietnam to help the party find ways to work with the government of Vietnam for peaceful reform.

Susan H. Williams is Walter W. Foskett Professor of Law and Director, Center for Constitutional Democracy of the Maurer School of Law, Indiana University Bloomington. Professor Williams is the author of Truth, Autonomy, and Speech: Feminist Theory and the First Amendment (NYU Press 2004). Her current book project, Constituting Equality: Comparative Constitutional Law and Gender Equality, is a collection of essays growing out of a spring 2007 conference she organised. She has also written numerous articles on constitutional law and feminist legal theory. She is actively involved in constitutional advising for the Burmese democracy movement. She is a constitutional advisor to the Women’s League of Burma, the Federal Constitution Drafting Coordinating Committee, and the state constitution drafting committees of all of the states of Burma. In this capacity, she teaches workshops, produces educational materials, and works on drafting and revising constitutional language. At Indiana Law, Williams teaches Property, First Amendment Law, Feminist Jurisprudence, and a seminar on Comparative Constitutional Law on Gender Equality.